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Халықтың инфляция жеп қойған ақшасын кім қайтарады?

Отандық өнім бағасының өзі 10-15%-ға қымбаттаған

Фото: ашық дереккөздерден алынды

2020 жылдың 1-қаңтарынан мұғалімдердің еңбекақысы 25%-ға, мәдениет саласы қызметкерлерінің айлығы 35-50%-ға, әлеуметтік сала қызметкерлерінікі - 30 %-ға өсті. Сондай-ақ шәкіртақы мен зейнетақы көлемі де 800 теңгеге көбейді. 

Сол-ақ екен, елдегі азық-түлік өнімдері бірден 10-15%-ға шарықтап кете барды. Бастапқыда, мұны біз Қытай  эпидемиясының салдары, шекарадағы шектеу дедік. Бірақ  мамандар алға тартып отырғандай, елде отандық өнімдердің де бағасы қаңтар айынан бері қымбаттап шыға келген. 

Сала мамандарының пайымдауынша, нақ қазіргі қалыптасып отырған қымбатшылық жайғдайында халықтың табысына мардымсыз үстемақы қосылып отыр.

Экономист-ғалым Жаңабай Алдабергеновтың айтуынша, 10-15, 20-25 пайыздық үстемақы қосу халықты қымбатшылықтан құтқармайды. Мысалы, біздегі орташа еңбекақы көлемі 120 мың теңгенің айналасында.

 Ал енді санаңыз, қазір бір айға, ең аз дегенде, азық-түлік сатып алуға 60-70 мың теңге кетеді. Қала халқының төлейтін коммуналдық қызметақысы бар. Ауыл халқының жем-шөбінен бастап, отынуы-суына дейін қымбаттаған. Алдағы уақытта да қымбатшылықтың жалғаспайтынына қатысты ешбір инстанция кепілдік бере алмайды. 

«Біз қазір әлеуметтік аз қамтылған топтарға үлкен салмақ түсіріп отырмыз. Соңғы бес жылда халықтың ақшаны тамақтан үнемдеуі көп нәрсені аңғартады», - дейді экономист-ғалым. 

Сарапшының пайымдауынша, үкімет алдағы екі жылда сауатты шешімдер қабылдауы тиіс. Әсіресе, елдегі орташа еңбекақы мен ең төменгі күн көріс деңгейіне қатысты нақты шешімдер қабылдайтын кезең жетті. 

«Сондай-ақ халықтың зейнетақы қорындағы қаржысы да құнсызданып жатыр. Оны да мойындаған жөн. Депозиттерде жатқан қаржы да қазір құнсыз. Бірақ біздегі депозиттерге қосылатын үстеме пайыз өскен жоқ. Мұның барлығына қатысты нақты нақты шешімдер қабылдайтын кез келді»,- дейді Жаңабай Алдабергенов. 

Ол үшін маман айтып отырғандай, бірінші кезекте, келесі шаралады жүзеге асырған жөн:

  • халық тұтынатын азық-түлік себетінен бастап, орташа еңбекақы көлемі, күн көріс деңгейі қайта сұрыпталуы қажет;
  • үкімет монополистерге шектеу қоя білуі тиіс, тариф бағасын қолдан көтеруге, газ, жанар-жағармай бағасын, транзиттік қызметтерді орынсыз қымбаттатуға жол берілмеуі керек.

Үкімет өсірген еңбекақыны инфляция жеп қоймауы үшін, алдымен, осы іспетті шараларды орындауға мән беру керек, деген сенімде мамандар.
 

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Uzbekistani Government Sells Huge Part of its Businesses to the Private Sector

Investors will have a chance to purchase a share in more than one thousand government-owned companies

Photo: Shutterstock/MehmetO.

The authorities of Uzbekistan declared its intention to put a huge part of government-owned companies into the hands of the private sector. This policy will be implemented under a new strategy prepared by a group of local and international experts. According to this new strategy, Uzbekistan should demonstrate strong political will and be ready to change the country’s legislation.

National Economy and State-owned Companies

The large scale privatization campaign was initiated by President Shavkat Mirziyoyev in December 2019 when he set out to make an inventory of all government-owned businesses. Later, in a statement to Oliy Majlis (Uzbekistani parliament), he charged the government to prepare a strategy on how to enhance a competitive environment in the country. 

As a result, the government developed a list of 2965 state-owned companies with a value of $11.7 billion dollars combined. Authorities examined their business activities and made some conclusions. For example, they figured out that government-owned companies make 55% of gross domestic product (GDP). According to Bakhtiyor Khaydarov, an official of the Agency for Management of State Assets (AMSA) this indicator is much bigger than in other countries: 35% in Russia, 15% in Singapore, 8% in Vietnam and 20-25% in developed economies on average.

Despite the large impact of government-owned companies on the national economy, they account for only 47% of all taxes to the state budget and provide jobs for only 6% of all working Uzbekistani people. Many of these government-owned businesses suffer losses ($431.1 million); 34% of them do not make tax accounting and only 33% pay dividends.

As Khaydarov noted, 900 of those companies fully depend on tax and customs preferences and many of them operate noncore divisions.

Better Late Than Never

The Uzbekistan authorities do not want to waste time and are ready to implement their new strategy as soon as possible. However, a new coronavirus pandemic can affect this plan. AMSA has already prepared a series of new regulations which stipulate a large-scale privatization program. To develop this program, Uzbekistan invites all local and international experts and organizations to participate. 

According to the new strategy, the government will offer the private sector 1115 companies to buy. The government will keep only 554 businesses; more than 700 enterprises will be eliminated. The current number of 1718 unitary national businesses will be reduced drastically with only 70 entities left. These will be transformed to operate as joint-stock companies or OOO (local type of Limited Liability Company). 

According to Andrey Boytsun, an official representative of the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the work initiated by the Uzbekistan government is very important for the country. 

“Close examination and grading of all government-owned businesses are highly important. Some of them will be eliminated or reorganized. However, before the government decides what to do with the company it has to know whether it needs this company or not,” he said.

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In the right place 

The most important criteria in the new privatization strategy is a split between state agencies’ tasks, said Andrey Boytsun. Various ministries should focus on the development of a general policy toward business and treat all companies either public or private in a similar way. 

Currently, private businesses can’t compete with government-owned companies because they have no tax or customs preferences and can’t participate in government procurements without biddings as state-owned enterprises do. For instance, in the construction and architecture sector, the state provides support for 62 of such quasi companies.

“The function of the owner should be performed by another body, not the one that is the regulator. Otherwise, it turns out like in football, when the judge plays on the side of one of the teams,” said Boytsun. 

“Pharmaceutical enterprises in Uzbekistan will never be competitive unless they comply with standards and good manufacturing practices. To establish this standard is the task of the ministry and not the management and ownership of pharmaceutical companies. If we do not, Uzbekistan will only be a sales market for foreign companies,” commented Wieslaw Kaczmarek, ex-Minister of the Treasury of Poland and independent consultant in the Uzbekistani AMSA.

Explain or sell 

Privatization in Uzbekistan is aimed to reduce the government’s role in the economy and should be implemented in five years.

In order to achieve this, the government will use a so-called Yellow Pages Rule, which means that the state will leave those sectors where private businesses already operate. 

Another new rule for public companies is an “explain or sell.” If the government can explain why it owns the specific business it can keep it through AMSA, which manages all state assets.

“The ultimate owners of state-owned enterprises are citizens of Uzbekistan; therefore, it will be correct if AMSA reports directly to the Oliy Majlis which represents the people’s interests,” the EBRD representative emphasized.

What is the priority?

New privatization rules are also implying that state-owned companies should increase their effectiveness to work as real businesses; to introduce tools for assessment of their executive bodies' work; to create compliance services, external audit, etc. 

The supervisory board should also be changed. According to Boytsun, only 3% of board members are independent and this figure should be much higher.

“When it comes to creating supervisory boards, it is important that they have professionals with a variety of competencies and skills to make the right and balanced decisions. In practice, there should be fewer civil servants. Now they’rethe majority,” said Boytsun.

Another opinion was shared by Vinoyak Nagarach, representative of the World Bank in Uzbekistan, who doesn’t argue with privatization supporters but calls for patience.

“In Uzbekistan, there are strong opportunities, administrative potential. If you look at the history of Uzbekistan, macroeconomic indicators, many enterprises were very good. We can’t say that all directors are bad managers. It is important to use what is,” said Nagarach.

Legislation reform

International experts, as well as representatives of business and state-owned companies, insist that privatization efforts should be accompanied by changes in legislation.

According to Kaczmarek, to avoid mistakes Uzbekistan must introduce a new privatization law.

“If we are talking about the revival of privatization, the first step of this important strategy is the new version of the law on privatization. There is no way around it,” said the expert.

Rustam Kadyrov, head of the Department for Strategic Planning and Analysis of the Uzsanoat joint-stock company agrees, noting that new clear written rules might be helpful in getting money from ordinary people.

 “Today, our citizens are not interested in investing in Uzbekistan. After all, we have a bad experience with this. Because you are buying land, and there is no guarantee that in five years this decision will not annul the hokim (head of the local administration),” Kadyrov gave an example. 

The AMSA admits that many regulatory rules concerning privatization are outdated.  

“The law on privatization was adopted in 1991. It is already outdated and does not correspond to the time. We have the 279th resolution, which consists of 400 pages, and it is also outdated. We also have a lot of regulations outdated, and experts do not own the updated database. We must update and retrain our specialists, we must update and revise all these laws and acts, and this is one of our priorities in today's work,” said Tulkin Nabiev, deputy head of the Agency.
 

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